Biophysicists developed a theory for ATP which contradicts principles of chemistry. They have kinetic energy restoring the chemical energy of ATP. A truism is that kinetic energy can never be converted to biochemical energy.
Biochemical energy is in covalent bonds, which means electrons orbiting the bonded nuclei. The energy is in the motion of electrons. Kinetic energy is in the motion of nuclei.
The ionic bonds of inorganic chemistry are different from the covalent bonds of organic chemistry. Ionic bonds are not undestood, but they are weak and do not involve electrons orbiting nuclei in a close and strict manner. They are subject to electrochemical influences which organic molecules are not.
Biochemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy, but kinetic energy can never be converted to biochemical energy, because electrons can influence the motion of nuclei, but nuclei cannot significantly influence the relative motion of electrons which orbit them. The linear motion of electrons in nonorganic systems (such as copper wires) is a totally different question.
Only the radiation of photosynthesis can increase chemical energy in biological systems. All other reactions reduce the amount of chemical energy, as heat is a byproduct of energy transfers.
ATP is the universal energy carrier in biology. It donates chemical energy to assist in biochemical reactions.
ATP gives up its energy by splitting into ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). To become reenergized, another source of chemical energy is needed. During respiration, the source is hydrogen attached to NAD, which is at a higher energy state than ATP. In fact, three ATPs are usually reenergized from each NADH.
Osmotic Pressure of Protons
During respiration, hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped across a membrane into an area where they form an osmotic pressure. They then pass back through the membrane while going through a protein complex causing it to rotate. As it rotates, it picks up ADP and Pi, pulls them together and then releases reconstructed ATP.
Laws of physics say that to form the bond between ADP and Pi, an outside source of high energy electrons has to be used. But biophysicists omit any such source in their theory. They say the binding site adds the increased energy.
Supposedly, the binding site picks up kinetic energy from the rotating wheel. It then creates a force which increases the energy state of the electrons which bind ADP to Pi.
The Physics of Kinetic and Chemical Energy
Here's the physics of the subject. An osmotic gradient is a source of kinetic energy. Kinetic energy means a mass moves. Protons are mass which move across the osmotic gradient.
A truism is that kinetic energy cannot be transformed into biochemical energy, because force or motion of nuclei cannot be directly converted to force or motion of electrons which orbit nuclei in the close and strict manner of covalent bonds. (Stress force is generally referred to as potential energy; but still, it can only be converted to kinetic energy, not biochemical energy.)
Biochemical energy is a relationship between an electron and the nuclei that it orbits. It always moves down hill in chemical reactions except where radiant energy is added through photosynthesis.
Differences in Velocities
There can never be exceptions to these principles, and here's why. Electrons orbit nuclei at about 108 cm/s. Their extremely low mass allows them to move at such high velocity.
By contrast, nuclei (including protons) are heavy and move at low velocity compared to electrons.
An electron does not see a nucleus which it is orbiting as being significantly moving. Nuclei are practically motionless relative to the higher velocity of electrons.
For example, if a nucleus needed to move ten units to affect an electron which orbits it, the electron would make thousands of orbits before the nuclei could move that much distance. So the displacement of the nucleus would be miniscule during each orbit of the electron.
This principle applies to thermal energy as well as kinetic energy. Thermal energy is randomized motion of nuclei. kinetic energy is linearized motion of any mass. Randomized motion of nuclei would be as invisible to electrons as the linear motion of kinetic energy.
Since the motion of a nucleus is invisible to the electrons which orbit it, it cannot influence the energy of those electrons. If electromagnetic forces are added, they can influence electrons, but this situation applies to ionic systems and electricity, not biochemistry.
Energy out of Binding Force
The biophysicists, however, are trying to get biochemical energy out of binding force. Supposedly, kinetic energy from the turning protein wheel creates binding force which supplies energy to ATP.
The problem is that binding force is a stress force between nuclei. It cannot add energy to the electrons of biochemical systems. What would give up the energy? The stress force between nuclei would remain after the electron created the bond between ADP and Pi.
An erroneous assumption of the theorists appears to be that a stress force can act upon an electron and increase its energy level by accelerating it.
Acceleration of Electrons
Evidence shows that external forces (other than radiation) cannot significantly accelerate the electrons of biochemical systems. Normal chemical reactions show the principle. They exert forces on electrons causing them to change orbits to form bonds, and yet the energy level always decreases.
There is a logical explanation. Acceleration is time dependent. Electrons move at such high velocity that external forces cannot act for enough time to produce significant acceleration in one direction for an orbiting electron. Acceleration would have to occur during a fraction of an electron's orbit. During the other half of the orbit, a deceleration would occur. One half of an electron orbit is not enough for significant acceleration.
Electrical systems are different in that the electrons have linear motion rather than orbital motion. Therefore, a linear force can accelerate the electrons.
Radiation can add energy to orbiting electrons, because it can exert a force on the electron repeatedly during numerous orbits. The frequency of the radiation is critical, because it must synchronize with the electron orbit in order to repeatedly add force during the same part of the orbit.
So there are theoretical reasons why binding force cannot add energy to electrons, in addition to the fact that no significant energy can be given up to electrons by stress forces between nuclei.
The biophysicists who study ATP say there is also an electrostatic force in the osmotic gradient, as if it might mysteriously be converted into chemical energy. But a one-directional force cannot change the relationship between an electron and the nuclei that it orbits for reasons described above.
The process of respiration which energizes ATP consists of a series of cytochromes associated with proteins. Cytochromes are colored compounds with metals in the center. Scientists do not know the function of cytochromes.
Cytochromes have numerous double bonds surrounding a metal atom such as iron, copper or cobalt. The circumstance indicates that the double bonds and metal atom allow electrons to move back and forth between orbital and linear motion. This creates a pool of electrons with various energy levels.
A high energy electron from NADH goes into the cytochrome. An electron of just the right amount of energy comes out to energize ATP. The result is very high efficiency energy transfer which allows three ATP molecules to be energized from each NADH molecule.
Proof is in the Ratio of 3 ATPs per NADH
Proof that the proton gradient does not energize the ATP is in the fact that one NADH molecule always produces exactly three ATP molecules in usual systems. The cytochromes define that relationship. If the proton gradient were an intermediate step, the ratio between NADH and ATP would vary wildly based upon efficiencies.
An absurdity in Small Forces
The only difference between heat and kinetic energy is that heat is a dispersal and randomization of motion through molecules. At the molecular level, heat would do the same thing as the force of the proton gradient or force created by the rotating protein wheel, except about a billion times better. The motion and force of the gradient and spinning wheel is extremely slow compared to the vibrating motion caused by heat.
So if the proton gradient or spinning wheel were really the source of energy, heat would do the same thing infinitely better. No one is saying all you have to do is heat ADP +Pi and get ATP. But add some complexities, mystery and hocus pocus, and miniscule forces supposedly do the same thing.
Science doesn't work that way
The primary point is that science doesn't work the way ATP physics is being handled, and this is generally true of all modern science. If for example, ATP scientists assume in the back of their minds that kinetic energy could generate electrical energy, and electrical energy could create chemical energy through hydrolysis, it's fraud. Science does not occur in the back of minds, it occurs accountably in the open where it can be criticized.
If ATP scientists were making such assumptions, the most they could do is suggest evidence for it. Instead of evidence and rational discussion, all of the complexities are skipped over. When complexities are skipped over in science, it isn't science. That isn't how science works. It's how the carbon dioxide fraud is forced onto society. People may find it familiar, being how politics often works and power is handled. When science is reduced to that standard, it is no better than the charlatanism which it was supposed to replace.
The real evidence in ATP science indicates that cytochromes increase the energy of electrons and transfer them to the phosphate bond, while the spinning protein only moves molecules into place. To discard all that evidence and replace it with whimsical absurdity is fraud. It's not scientific error. It's too blatant of a mockery of scientific standards to be error. It's a contempt for science by power mongers who want to reduce the social standards to a level which allows them to dominate and control society.