Most science errors are in physics due to the difficulty of making measurements in that area. The biological sciences were in good shape until recently because of the ease of acquiring evidence through numerous means. Evolution, however, is more mysterious and prone to errors. Evaluation becomes more heavily depended upon in evolution biology due to the indirect nature of the evidence.
There is a range of standards with evaluation. Often, the process is too whimsical and unreliable as with the claim that soil was created through the breakdown of rocks. If surrounding evidence were developed better, the contradictions would show up. The best evidence in any area is in the related realities. But it takes a broad study with a lot of observation and experience to develop surrounding realities. Highly specialized scientists have a tendency to miss a lot outside of a narrow focus. The subject of evolution has a lot of gaps and errors for this reason.
Usually, a study of fossils and bones makes up the evidence for evolution. When studying the physiology of mushrooms, fungi and soil, a much broader picture of evolution emerges. (Physiology is the study of interactions between biochemical processes.) With this perspective it is possible to determine how fat production evolved. Yeast acquired the physiology necessary for fat production, and they didn’t exist until 50 million years ago. Evidence indicates that there was no storage fat before then.
Not long ago scientists would have nullified this statement based on Mendelian inheritance showing no line of descent between yeasts and other plants and animals which produce fat. Since then a large window into evolution has been opened through the discovery of horizontal gene transfer which allows genes to be carried between unrelated species by viruses and other microbes.
Another window to evolution is phenotypic variation as an adaptation mechanism. All species use this mechanism to produce variation more rapidly than normal evolution as genotypic variation. A lot of confusion over variants is cleared up in understanding this mechanism.
Examples of extreme evolution create another window into the mechanisms and history of evolution. The morel mushroom evolving from a single celled yeast into a multicellular mushroom over the past 80 thousand years shows rudimentary mechanisms which disappear in the complexities with long-term evolution. Reversion to earlier patterns is demonstrated with the morel showing that physiology is controlled as patterns stored in the DNA to be activated under suitable conditions. The morel also shows how rapidly morphology evolves and how slowly physiology evolves.
With this foundation of information, it is possible to determine that modern respiration evolved in a bacterium called Pseudomonas fluorescens approximately 700 million years ago. Physiological demands would not allow this evolution to occur alongside normal metabolism. But polar flagella could evolve as a parallel mechanism in this bacterium with the related protein complex which uses ATP. Reversing the process allowed those proteins to be used for a more expedient production of ATP.
Biophysicists have been making errors based on a concept of converting kinetic energy into chemical energy. Kinetic energy can never be converted into chemical energy. Kinetic energy is in the motion of nuclei. Chemical energy is in the motion of electrons. It is a truism that any force acting upon nuclei (short of a nuclear reaction) will not increase the energy of the electrons. Therefore, kinetic energy (including heat, which is the average kinetic energy of small particles) can never be converted into chemical energy. In biology, chemical energy is only increased through light acting upon electrons through photosynthesis.
Because of this error biophysicists have a gross description of ATP generation based on protons moving through a gradient to spin proteins and transfer the energy from “binding force” to ATP. Errors of this sort corrupt major areas of science, where corruption builds upon corruption much as with global warming.
Based on the same error of kinetic energy increasing chemical energy petroleum hydrocarbons are said to originate with biological molecules which are acted upon by heat and pressure to increase their level of chemical energy. There is no such thing as fossil fuels due to the inability of kinetic energy to increase chemical energy.
Petroleum hydrocarbons would have been created during the early formation of the earth and then oxidized into water, which created the oceans, and carbon dioxide, which created a large amount of limestone and chalk. Some of the petroleum was protected from oxidation underground, where it remained throughout geological history.
Notice in Wikipedia that chalk supposedly comes from the shells of marine animals. No, Virginia, there is way too much chalk and too much in one place for that. It was created on a massive scale, very rapidly, while the ocean water was forming during the early stages of earth formation. If chalk formation were a late process dependent upon marine animals, it would be loaded with other materials. Instead, it is closer to pure calcium carbonate.
Physicists got the equation for defining kinetic energy wrong in 1686. Instead of correcting the error, physicists reverted to producing fake science. Fakery became exploitable in physics due to the abstractness of the material and the darkness of the complex math applied to the subject.
If one of the major banks became a black box, and all anyone could see is what went in and came out, it would become a criminal enterprise in a matter of weeks. That’s what happened to physics.
Because of the misdefinition of kinetic energy physicists expect much energy to result from nuclear fusion. There is no significant energy in nuclear fusion, as laser tests have shown. Atom smashers keep getting larger in the attempt to produce such energy without success.
The highly developed pattern and practice of producing fakery in physics resulted in the claim of greenhouse gases creating global warming. There is no such thing as greenhouse gases, because there is no such thing as trapping heat in the atmosphere. Absorbed radiation is re-emitted in femto seconds.
Notice the propaganda in such terms as “heat trapping gas.” It is extremely nonscientific to assume heat could be trapped in the atmosphere. The word “trapping” sticks in the minds of nonscientists as something that does not go away. The propagandists also claim that nothing but greenhouse gases heat the atmosphere, and they have added 33°C to the temperature of the earth’s surface.
Other scientists know that conduction and evaporation move heat from the surface of the earth into the atmosphere, as they show it on the diagrams of their “energy budgets” for heat moving into and out of the earth. But they never correct such errors, even though the 33°C claim is at the top of the environmental web sites for all fifty states and numerous local governments which replicate the propaganda that comes down from federal bureaucrats.
Incompetents used to try to argue global warming, but they fell flat on their faces so totally that all they say anymore is that 97% of the scientists agree. No one is allowed to disagree, within science or without. So where does the 3% come from? It’s more fakery—pretending that there is a normal discussion where there is none.
Relativity was contrived with no relationship to objective reality to serve as a model and test for contrivance in physics. No science to the subject has every been described beyond a few absurd conclusions, such as nothing can move faster than the speed of light. Physicists pretend that there are oceans of science in their obscure math, but if anything real existed, it would show up someplace, which it never does. They write millions of relativity equations without error, because fake science is “nonfalsifiable,” as Popper, the science philosopher, described it. Nonfalsifiability means errors are imposed through force, and no one is allowed to disagree, which is where global warming now rests.
Quantum mechanics contradicts the unquestionable wave characteristics of light and claims energy packets (photons) replace waves. Energy cannot have length, width height, as packets do. All scientists say there cannot be contradictions in science, yet there is nothing in physics beyond Newton’s laws which is not in conflict with other parts of physics.
Mushroom scientists claim that the morel mushroom is an ancient cup fungus 129 million years old. That’s older than most dinosaurs. The morel doesn’t have a stable morphology yet, evolving from a single-celled yeast during this ice age cycle. It hasn’t yet acquired the ability to measure gravity to control vertical growth. Everything that emerges from the ground measures gravity for vertical growth, but the morel hasn’t had enough time yet to do so.
The whole purpose of science is to create a domain of objective reality free from the arbitrariness of subjectivity. In other words, science (and objective reality) is supposed to be the same for everyone.
There is a methodology to producing objective reality, in science and out. The process is called rationality. Rationality is the process of relating one reality to another to show consistent relationships. Objective reality is developed by determining what the evidence shows. Evidence is related to additional evidence including knowledge.
Incompetents in science are defying the process of producing objective reality through rationality, because they cannot function competitively where there is rationality.