About The Author I study unusual species which show extreme evolution. In graduate school I studied the yeast Nadsonia fulvescens, which is adapted to growing on tree sap. When rain washes the sap away, the yeast forms a spore without nutrients available. It had to produce spores outside the cells, because shrinkage and hard cell walls required a smaller space. This yeast had the same control mechanisms as mushrooms. So I studied the morel mushroom. It evolved from a single-celled yeast 20,000 years ago. I know of no other multicellular organism that evolved from a single celled organism in the past several hundred million years. Unheard of phenomena include reversion patterns from earlier evolution. It showed phenotypic variation as an adaptation mechanism. All organisms use this mechanism, but it wasn't understood, and it has been confusing scientists. I got the graduate work published but not the rest. I was an outsider by then. Science can no longer tolerate outside influences, because extreme corruption requires heavy handed control. A total lack of criticism, inside science and out, has resulted in corruption taking over science. In the past, only a few retired scientists dared to speak out, and they went unheard. Even they are now gone, as the internet changed the standards of public communication resulting in independent voices being buried in oblivion. There was more criticism possible when the paper medium was used. Over the past forty years, I found endless errors in science and overwhelming forces promoting and protecting the errors. In 1997, I created a web site on the results, and it continually evolved. This book is a condensed version of the material on my web site. The science of these issues in not accessible by the public. Promoters of global warming say the science is settled, but they won't tell the public what that science is. Some web sites produce a few paragraphs of rationalizations on some issue with no clue as to the degree of corruption at the core of the science. I grew up in a small town in South Dakota. My dad was an auto mechanic. Near by, my grandparents had a farm, so I spent summers doing farm work. In high school, I studied vocational agriculture and then started college in agriculture before switching majors to microbiology. Microbiology is a total and highly integrated subject. Molecular biology began in microbiology and still occupies a large part of the subject. You also study medical microbiology, virology and immunology. The basis of it all is physiology, which includes most of biochemistry. For these reasons, microbiology is the most completely developed and properly defined area of science. The reason why this matters is because a lot of scientists do not understand what science is supposed to be. Power mongers turn science into a propaganda tool with none of the standards which would correct errors. The need for controls, references and standards is recognized in microbiology, while fake scientists don’t know what those things are. I studied yeast physiology in graduate school at the University of Arizona. The yeast that I studied (Nadsonia fulvescens) was very mysterious, as it formed a spore outside the vegetative cell, and cell material migrated into the spore leaving an empty shell for a "sporangium." My major professor suggested that I do time lapse photography of the process looking for clues as to why the cell material was migrating into an adjacent spore instead of forming the spore within the vegetative cell, as usually occurs. I got tired of the photography real fast and studied the nutrition and physiology of the yeast. At that time, 1969, yeast sporulation research was in a state of chaos. Yeast scientists knew something was triggering sporulation, but they couldn't determine what it was. They tested every chemical on the shelf without results. In 1967, A. F. Croes (1), in the Netherlands, looked at the physiology and found indications that a peak in energy metabolism was triggering sporulation. I found additional evidence in nitrogen metabolism (2). Depletion of nitrogen causes a build-up of ATP, because it can't be used for synthesis without nitrogen, and the result promotes sporulation. Along with the migration of cell material during sporulation, the yeast, Nadsonia fulvescens, produces spores without nutrients being available. In other words, it stores up energy and cell material and then transfers that material into an adjacent chamber called an ascus. Sporulation is inhibited by a repressor substance, acetate, which is a product of metabolism. These strange characteristics result from adaptation to growing on tree sap. Most yeasts grow well on tree sap, but they can't adapt to it, because it is transitory. Nadsonia adapted by forming a spore when rain washes the tree exudate away. Acetate repression maximizes growth by not allowing spores to form while nutrients are available. Forming the spore from previously stored-up material results in a shrinkage of cell mass. Since yeasts have hard cell walls, the material must move into a smaller chamber to accommodate the reduction in size. Only Nadsonia shows the migration of cell material, which indicates that it is the only yeast which forms a spore when nutrients are not available and therefore the only yeast adapted to growing on tree sap. After graduate school, I moved onto the vacated farm where my grandparents used to live and did mushroom research. Since independent scientists do not get funding, I had a lot of time to look into errors in science. In 1983, I found that energy was misdefined in physics. After arguing with physicists and getting nowhere, I developed a mathematical proof of the error, which of course got nowhere also. I got into electronics designing numerous temperature controlling and measuring devices. In constructing an audio amplifier, I found that the usual design had an extremely problematic output due to an inadvertent voltage gain of about 50,000. So I designed a method of driving speakers without voltage gain, which greatly improved audio amplifiers. Of course, no one but a few hobbyists were interested. Capacitance meters were extremely expensive and imprecise during the eighties, so I found a better way to measure capacitance. The usual way was too slow for measuring small capacitors. Meters measure the time interval required for voltage to rise, which means two measurements. A much faster way is to simply measure the current required to produce the voltage rise. Being much faster, the process can be completed during the short time interval that small capacitors do what they do. This method allows almost a millionth as much capacitance to be measured as the previous method. It probably helped engineers develop touch screen displays based on capacitance, as I was getting email from engineering students at the time. I decided to study mushrooms, because my yeast results explain the basic physiology of mushrooms. Just as the yeast needs to store up cell material to create a spore, mushrooms store up cell material in the mycelium before using it to form a mushroom. This allows a mushroom to form in one or two days, while a month or more is required to build up the cell mass in the mycelium. Mushrooms must form rapidly to prevent dehydration or damage before the spores are released. Mushrooms also show the need for an energy peak to promote differentiation, which means creation of the new form or mushroom. An energy peak is a method of determining that nutrients and cell machinery are adequate for completing the process. This physiology is visible in the composting method of growing mushrooms. After mycelium gets thick, a layer of peat moss is put on top, which is called a casing. When mycelium gets to the surface of the casing, a mushroom forms. The difference between surface and lower growth is oxygen availability. Oxygen produces ATP through respiration. I thought about studying this process. When I looked into it, I found that a nearby professor was studying the morel mushroom. He talked me into studying the morel. The morel was extremely mysterious. It produces spores within the tissue (ascospores), as yeasts do. As time went on, I found the physiology of the morel to be exactly that of a yeast, which could only result from evolution from a yeast. The morel was excreting acid to kill bacteria and feed on them. The acid tends to accumulate on the mycelium and kill it. But yeasts will tolerate more acid than bacteria, so the morel became dependent upon excreting acid, even while too much will kill the mycelium. The morel evolved from a yeast so recently that it does not have good control over morphology. It also self-destructs as it dies off, as all bacteria and yeasts do, but which mushrooms never do. The process is called autolysis. It allows nutrients to be recycled by breaking large molecules into subunits for re-use as nutrients. By 1997, I had a large amount of scientific information accumulated and no better place for it than the internet. About then, global warming became a social issue, so I have been developing that subject explaining the science in terms the public can understand. Eventually, my limited resources prevented me from keeping a car running any longer, so I got on a bus and moved to Seattle. All I do now is maintain my web site, which requires a lot of updating on global warming, as arguments transform into social dogma. I'm a pre-1980 type liberal. At that time, liberals were promoting equal opportunity, which means creating social structures and solving problems for the lower classes. When the lower classes have money to spend, economies thrive. The IMF does the opposite—putting the lower classes out of work and bankrupting economies. -------------
1. Croes, A. F. 1967a. Induction of meiosis in yeast. I. Timing of cytological and biochemical events. Planta, 76: 209-226.
—1967b. Induction of meiosis in yeast. II. Metabolic factors leading to meiosis. Planta, 76: 227-237.
2. (Graduate Research). Novak, G. E. 1981. Edotrophic sporulation by the yeast Nadsonia fulvescens. Can. J. Microbiol. 27: 967-970.