Energy Misdefined: Simple and unquestionable mathematical proof shows energy has been misdefined in physics. Experiments cannot determine the correct definition of energy, because elastic force cannot be separated from inelastic force in experimental results. So pure mathematics is needed. By using rockets as a substitute for gravity, the inelastic force is constant for constant powered rockets eliminating the problem. Summary Description of Energy Misdefined
There is no energy in hydrogen fusion. Einstein created an expectation of huge amounts of energy in hydrogen fusion because of the equation, E=mc², while test keep finding none. Einstein paralleled a misdefinition of energy in squaring the velocity of light. Unsquare the velocity of light, and the energy reduces to irrelevance. It also means hydrogen bombs are only fission bombs. Wikipedia states, "most of its destructive energy comes from uranium fission rather than fusion." Why so little fusion in hydrogen bombs? Because there is no energy in fusion. A small amount could be lied about. Read More
Every molecule emits radiation due to its vibrations.
A transparent gas emits more radiation than an opaque solid.
The Stefan-Boltzmann constant states how much radiation is given off at any temperature.
It's an absolute truism that a small amount of something cannot heat a large amount of something without extreme differences in temperature, because heat dissipates, always. Four hundred parts per million carbon dioxide in the air is never going to influence the temperature of the atmosphere for this reason. The Global Warming Hoax Explained
One of the basic errors of climatologists is viewing the absorption spectrum which shows a trough for CO2 as representing heat, while not realizing that the energy is re-emitted at different wavelengths. The re-emitted energy blends with other radiation and is not evident in the absorption spectrum.
CO2 absorbs energy as fingerprint radiation and emits energy as black body radiation, as all matter does. The frequencies vary somewhat. Fingerprint absorption is caused by chemical bonds (electron orbits) stretching and bending, while black body radiation is caused by the whole molecule vibrating.
Absorbed radiation by carbon dioxide is re-emitted in 83 femto seconds.
That means no accumulation of heat occurs. And it means no spreading of heat to the surrounding 2,500 air molecules occurs before the energy is radiated away.
For these reasons, CO2 is like a 1 watt heater in an auditorium.
A major error of global warming is not noticing that each carbon dioxide molecule is surrounded by 2,500 air molecules and has no way to spread the heat around. This dilution divides the CO2 temperature by 2,500 for the average temperature, which is no heating at all. Each CO2 molecule would have to be 2,500°C to produce an average increase of 1°C for the whole atmosphere, an impossibility.
Conducting heat to nearby molecules by bumping increases the number of molecules radiating away the added heat, which prevents very many molecules from being heated.
Climatologists claim there is 79% radiation in the energy leaving the surface of the earth. A white hot light bulb cannot emit that much radiation without a vacuum environment. Reduce it to the 1-3% that it should be and global warming reduces by a factor of 40. The claimed 0.7°C caused by humans would reduce to 0.018°C, if there were such a thing. This error occurred because an erroneous Stefan-Boltzmann constant shows 20-50 times too much radiation at normal temperatures.
If all 0.7°C heating said to be caused by humans went into the surface of the oceans to a depth of 100 meters, the ocean surface temperature increase would be 0.025°C, and none of the heating would be left in the air. It means hurricanes are not caused by global warming, nor is coral bleaching. Hurricane Math
More than a century ago, scientists determined that carbon dioxide saturates in the atmosphere and cannot absorb more radiation. This means CO2 absorbs all radiation available to it, so more CO2 cannot absorb more radiation. Additional CO2 only shortens the distance required for complete absorption. The saturation distance for CO2 in the near-surface atmosphere is 10 meters.
But climatologists erased the whole concept of saturation by supposedly calculating how much radiation gets to the surface of the atmosphere through fake "radiative transfer equations". Making saturation disappear is an impossibility.
1. With absorbed radiation being re-emitted in 83 femto seconds, global warming caused by humans does not exist.
2. With dilution by 2,500, global warming caused by humans does not exist.
3. With radiation divided by a factor of 40, global warming caused by humans does not exist.
4. With an impossibility of a small amount of something heating a large amount of something, global warming caused by humans does not exist.
5. With saturation, global warming caused by humans does not exist.
How could all those scientists be wrong? They operate in the dark and say, just trust us, with no accountability.
The 33°C Error
The gravity wave tunnel error
Getting Greenhouse Wrong
Bureaucrats promote a fake efficiency of 96% for electric motors creating big expectations for electrifying the transportation system. Laws of physics do not allow more than 40% efficiency in converting any form of energy into the kinetic energy of motion.
Why are electric vehicles going to take off in two years, when nothing has changed in the past five?
Mathematical Proof Energy is Misdefined in Physics
Physicists used this test in an improper manner starting with the false assumption that force times distance should be the starting point. A false definition of energy resulted stating that ½mv² is kinetic energy. Applying rocket energetics to the same test that physicists used proves that they were wrong and mv (momentum) is the real kinetic energy.
Explanation of Concept: Energy is defined as "that which is conserved during transformations." Conserved means totals stay the same when components are re-arranged. So the test for the definition of kinetic energy is to re-arrange the components and see which total stays the same.
Part 1: Kinetic energy is not ½mv²:
A 4kg object dropped 1m (meter) has the same amount of ½mv² as a 1kg object dropped 4m, because force times distance equals ½mv² for an accelerating mass. But a rocket accelerating the masses to those velocities requires twice as much energy as fuel for the large mass as for the small one.
Rocket burn time:
large mass: 1.77177876722800 seconds
small mass: 0.88588938361400 seconds
Therefore, both masses do not have the same energy; the rocket does not transform energy in proportion to ½mv²; ½mv² is not kinetic energy; and a gallon of fuel does not produce a consistent amount of ½mv².
Part 2: Kinetic energy is mv:
A 4kg object dropped for 1s (second) has the same amount of mv (momentum) as a 1kg object dropped for 4s, because force times time equals mv for an accelerating mass. A rocket accelerating the masses to those velocities uses the same amount of energy as fuel for both masses.
Rocket burn time:
large mass: 3.92400000000000 seconds
small mass: 3.92400000000000 seconds
Therefore, both masses have the same amount of energy; the rocket transforms energy in proportion to mv; mv is kinetic energy; and a gallon of fuel produces a consistent amount of mv.
All logic and evidence of energy point to the same conclusion. The logic created the need to derive the mathematical proof.
About ninety percent of physics is corrupted by the error... Read More
Gravity wave measurements were faked pretending to measure at millions and billions of times below the level of technological limits. The claimed distance measured is 0.1 atto meters, which is 100 million times smaller than the vibration of atoms. Nothing can be measured through a noise to signal ratio of 100 million to one.
False Energy Assumptions for Nuclear Fusion
Why "Hydrogen Bombs" are not Hydrogen Bombs
Why "Fossil Fuels" are not Fossil Fuels
Dark Matter and Space-Time Problem
A Counter-Argument to Relativity
Contradictions in Quantum Mechanics
ATP Theory is Absurd
Today's temperature is 5.77λR2/dθ3T4,
becoming λR/755·T/γ3θ by tomorrow.