Reversing the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant
Temperatures cannot be theorized. Heat moves around, transfers and transforms in too many ways to predict the temperature which heat will produce.
This effect is called the second law of thermodynamics. It says heat dissipates. The dissipation of heat is beyond exact analysis.
Yet climatologists feel a need to tell the public how much temperature change is being created by greenhouse gases. So they contrive a result.
One of the difference between real scientists and fakes is that real scientists respect the limitations of the tools available, while fakes don't know what those limitations are and assume they must have answers where there are none. So they fill in the gaps with contrivances. Predicting temperatures is an example of not knowing the limitations of science and cutting across the boundaries with fakery.
The closest science can get to predicting temperatures is to add a known amount of heat to a know amount of mass with reduced dissipation. The result is as accurate as the dissipation is limited, while dissipation can never be totally eliminated.
For example, adding one calorie of heat to one gram of water will increase its temperature one degree centigrade, but only in theory, because the second law of thermodynamics says the heat will be immediately dissipating into its environment. Under laboratory conditions, with every method possible for insulating the environment, temperature measurements can be made with limited theorizing. Even then, the whole process must be as rapid as possible to pin down the temperature before so much heat dissipates away that the number becomes too erroneous.
What climatologists didn't notice is that the atmosphere is the opposite of a highly insulated laboratory environmentit is dissipation on steroids. Trying to convince themselves and everyone else that the problem didn't exist, they used the terms "heat trapping gas" and "greenhouse effect." Fake words cannot overcome the limitations of science by turning off the second law of thermodynamics.
So climatologists did what physicists have been doing at least since James Joule pretended to be measuring heat produced by stirring water in a wooden bucket. They used fake mathematics to do what cannot be done through measurement. The mathematics which climatologists used for the atmosphere was based on the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, which they reversed to show a temperature resulting from additions of heat to the atmosphere.
Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann constant to the atmosphere is not valid, because it only applies to surfaces. The result is expressed in square meters, while there are no square meters in the atmosphere. But climatologists have no other means of handling temperature, so they apply the Stefan-Boltzmann constant to the atmosphere.
Then, when they needed a temperature for the amount of heat humans added to the atmosphere, they reversed the Stefan-Boltzmann constant to get a temperature. Reversing the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is not valid for that purpose, because it only applies to surfaces.