Temperature Measurements are Fake
Here's how the contriving is done. This graph shows raw data in blue, adjusted data in red, for Kremsmuenster, Austria. The earlier the data, the more it was adjusted downward. After 1970, upward adjustment begins. The contrived result shows a sharp increase, where the raw data shows no increase.
Here's how it was done for Scandinavia: "Scandinavian temperatures when represented by IPCC cannot be recognized in the real data from the Scandinavian temperature stations:"
Here's another method of showing an increase: First do a correction, which shows low; and toward the end shift to the uncorrected, which shows high. These variations in method show deliberate and concerted effort to contrive a false increase.
Latest Example: by Christopher Booker, The Telegraph, January 24, 2015. Examples were found in South America of earlier measurements being lowered to show a false increase. This is particularly significant because of there being very few stations in South America. Errors are spread over vast amounts of distance over the earth's surface in determining the global average surface temperature. Measurements are not made over 80% of the earth's surface. So when the authorities claim 2014 was the hottest year on record, it has about as much credibility as the Mafia.
What Temperature? The most significant fact of temperature measurements, and therefore global warming, is that surface measurements by thermometers cannot produce a scientifically justifiable measure of global warming. Such measurements weren't designed for that; they were designed for localized weather. There is no uniform methodology of reading, no uniform physical requirements and no proper maintenance for the stations. There are very few stations in impoverished countries, very few in extreme latitudes (cold areas) and none over the oceans.
Then the concept of surface means nothing in the three dimensional atmosphere. Ocean air near the surface equilibrates with water temperature, but how far up? Vertical mixing varies over land due to mountains and hot spots.
Surface temperature has no meaning; so how could it be measured? Fakes call it surface temperature in disregard for scientific legitimacy, because the measuring devices are located at the surface of the earth. There is no real number to be acquired, which is why frauds tailored their results from the beginning.
What Science? Journalists and nonscientists will often say that it's ok to adjust temperature measurements due to their limitations, as long as it is done properly. That's politics not science.
The whole purpose of science is to remove the human element from questions about nature. Otherwise, who decides whether the adjustments are proper or not? CRU said they adjusted properly; others say they did it wrong.
Real science says such faulty thermometer measurements are not useable in science. If the public wants adjusted thermometer measurements, it needs to be called something other than science.
The Entire Subject. This subject is the essence of the climategate files, because the CRU was in the temperature measuring business. And, temperature measurements create the underlying basis for the so-called settled science. This is because the settled science is nothing more than a fudge factor for calculating how much heat will result from an increase in CO2. The fudge factor is explained on the page titled Fake Equations. Christopher Monckton has a detailed review of the fabrication of temperature data here.
Urban Heat Island. The official thermometer records are based on the assumption that cities only increased temperatures by 0.05°C (urban heat island effect), as officially evaluated by Phil Jones the Climategate bungler. A recent study indicated that the urban heat island effect may be as high as 9°C. So Jones only missed it by a factor of 180. That’s 18,000% error. New Study Here
Satellites are much more reliable in measuring temperatures than thermometers, because they can cover large areas, while thermometers are located in few areas and are much influenced by their environment. Then maintenance of land based weather stations is a mess.
Thermometer measurements would be a scientific fraud for the study of climate even if they were totally accurate. First, they do not exist over the 70% of the earth covered by oceans. Then there are very few in the impoverished countries. So something like 10% of the earth's surface is actually measured. Then localized effects are highly variable for unknown reasons. Why was there a severe drought in the US state of Georgia for several years while nearby states were flooding? No one knows. Much of the variation is obvious due to changing environments which human activity creates.
One of the explanations given for altering the satellite measurements was that near-earth satellites gradually slow down over time due to thin atmosphere which they pass through. Slowing down would move them closer to the earth and create a higher read. So the satellite data would have needed to be lowered; but it was increased. The adjustment was in the opposite direction of the explanation.
Approximately in April, 2015, this issue of fake temperature data was in the news, and Senator Inhofe said his committee would conduct a hearing on it. The fakes countered by saying they increased the temperature because earlier measurements were made during the afternoons, and now they are made during the mornings. Adjustments were said to compensate for the difference. Apparently, Inhofe's committee did not conduct the hearing.
This claim shows the frivolous pattern of contriving shameless lies and the inability of nonscientists to deal with them. The temperature measurements are made at weather stations, which have no uniform standards. No one would have been told if they changed the time of measurement. But there is no time of measurement. Weather data is read several times per day and always states the highs and lows for the day. Why not just use the highs? They would have. To say the time changes was a blatant lie.
Furthermore, most of the discrepancy was due to lowering earlier measurements and much less due to increasing recent measurements. Not only did the explanation fail to account for most of the discrepancy, it went the wrong way for most of it. Also, the alteration showed a long term incline for about thirty years, and at the same stations. One change does not produce a long term incline, it would show a one time jump. Everything about the fakery is totally incredible.
It's impossible to determine a global average atmospheric temperature due to technical limitations. There is nothing for measurements over the oceans, very little in the southern hemisphere or "developing countries," very little over the poles, and worst of all, the weather stations were not designed for climate, because they have nothing for uniformity or proper standards including maintenance. Under these conditions, satellite measurements would be a major improvement; but they showed no change. So satellite measurements were altered to conform with contrived land-based measurements.
This means scientists don't have a clue as to the factors influencing atmospheric temperatures; and there is nothing in atmospheric temperatures that says a thing about so-called global warming.
New Zealand Temperature Measurements Faked - New Zealand Climate Science Coalition , April 26, 2010
Junkscience: Climategate Distortion of Temperature Data - S. Fred Singer, Canada Free Press, January 25, 2010
Investigation of Fake Temperature Measurements - Reported by KUSI January 14, 2010
The manipulation of numbers is discussed by Patrick Michaels here:
Hansen's standard of manipulating numbers is discussed here:
More on Hansen's manipulation of numbers:
The mess of weather stations is discussed by Anthony Watts here:
John Christy compares land based measurements with satellite data:
PatricK Michaels describes how the thermometer data disappeared:
A study by New Zealand Climate Science Coalition checked temperature data for New Zealand and found fraudulent adjustments to show an increase where there was none.
Antarctica temperature based on one station out on tip of warm peninsula.
CRU cherry-picked Rusian temperature data to show increase.
Survey of surface stations show a mess.
Some Recent Summaries
A new study by a German scientist Friedrich Karl Ewert, 2015