What about Argo
Argo consists of 3,000 diving buoys which were placed in the oceans between 2003 and 2007. They measure ocean temperatures to a depth of 700 meters. The results are close to worthless for many reasons, and tentative conclusions are disputed between Josh Willis and Roger Pielke.
The oceans are too vast for such measurements. Dividing 70% of the earth's surface by 3,000 yields 46,000 square miles per buoy. Assuming that a good average would have some meaning is a total misrepresentation of the science. The oceans are extremely heterogeneous, being in rivers of motion and mountains of layers of hot and cold water. And then the interpreters of Argo data adjusted colder measurements upward to reduce assumed bias. They threw out data from the coldest buoys, because the average seemed to be too low. If some buoys were too low, maybe the rest were too low also. That's not science.
There is no average in nature or the oceans, and producing one tells nothing. No one knows why an El Nino heats the surface of the Pacific Ocean causing floods in Central and South America.
What needs to be known about oceans is where the currents are located, what temperature they are, what size they are and how they are changing. Finding out would be too rational for Charlatans.
In recent science, numbers are how charlatans lock in their scams and prevent them from being corrected. Only certain authorities can acquire the numbers, so numbers are a method of destroying critical accountability. The exclusive authorities don't just produce objective measurements; they trim, tweak and adjust, until they get the numbers they want. And modern numbers are so expensive that there is no way to reproduce them. Most significantly, there are so many unaccounted-for complexities in modern science that you can find anything you want in numbers. Properly accounting for everything with good controls is so demanding that it doesn't happen with the shoddy standards of recent science, particularly with political demands which require magic from charlatans.
In terms of oceans, what is really happening is demonstrated by the weather. Increased humidity and precipitation resulting from ocean air says that a particular ocean surface is warming up. El Ninos are the best examples.
A major fraud is the pretense that heated air resulting from global warming should be heating the oceans. The oceans have a thousand times as much heat capacity as the atmosphere, which means oceans control air temperature, and average, minor air temperature variations do nothing to the oceans.
Another fraud is the pretense that all global heat can be accounted for, and it must be found in either the atmosphere of the oceans. Nothing could be more preposterous. No one knows how much heat is escaping into outer space through radiation; know one knows how much heat is entering or leaving the oceans; and know one knows how long heat accumulates in the oceans.
Most of the heat enters the oceans through sunshine which penetrates to some depth in ocean water which then circulates carrying the energy around in mysterious ways. No one knows how much solar energy is entering the oceans or how long it is staying there. Pielke, Hansen and Willis argue over the amount of heat which enters the oceans due to global warming of the atmosphere, as if no energy were entering oceans from the sun.
Another factor which is not taken into account by the fakes is geothermal heat. Heat is constantly moving from inside to the earth toward the surface. It is what thaws frozen ground in the spring, since surface heat does not go downward significantly. It is the reason why the ground does not freeze more than a few feet deep in most places. It shows up as warm well water when wells are more than a few hundred feet deep, as "artesian" wells are.
So geothermal heat has to be heating the oceans from the bottom up. How long does the geothermal heat accumulate in the oceans before escaping into the atmosphere and into space? It should accumulate for thousands of years. It could be the entire cause of ice ages.
There is increasing evidence that recent ice ages are simply an oscillation of geothermal heat in the oceans. Oceans appear to be constantly heating from the bottom up due to geothermal heat, as they should. The heated oceans put a lot of water vapor into the air. But they cannot heat the air enough to prevent that water vapor from forming snow in northern areas. So a point is reached where snow accumulates faster than it can melt and triggers the next ice age. All the time, the oceans keep acquiring heat from inside the earth and converting it into water vapor causing more snow and ice to accumulate. When the oceans get about 400 ft lower than present, so much land mass is exposed, that sunshine heats land more and oceans less causing ice to melt.
The point is that oceans accumulate vast amounts of heat both from the sun and from inside the earth. For climatologists to pretend that it all comes from the atmosphere couldn't be a bigger fraud.
On August 22, 2009, Roy Spencer reports that sea surface temperatures measured by ARGO are unexpectedly low compared to satellite microwave measurements of sea surface temperature, shown here.
Oceans Heating From Below by Vincent Gray