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Gary Novak

Global Warming Home

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Temperature Effects

Equilibrium in Atmosphere

Radiative Transfer Equations

Fudge Factor


Greenhouse Gas Mathematics

Temperature Measurements

Recent History


Firing Scientists

Acid in the Oceans

Heinz Hug Measurement

Methane is Weaker

Changing Weather

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Heating 2,500C

Natural Log Curve

Published not as Science

Fake Ice Core Data

Ice Melt Fraud

Future Ice Age

"Delicate Balance" Fraud

Heat-Trapping Gases

Back Radiation is Absurd

The Cause of Ice Ages and Present Climate


Second Climategate

The Disputed Area

IPCC Propaganda

The Water Vapor Fraud

Back Radiation is Absurd

The 41% Fraud

The 30% Fraud

A Fake Mechanism

Global Dynamic

River, not Window

What about Argo

Heinz Hug Measurement

Hockey Stick Graph

Ice Melt


The 41% Fraud


Supposedly, the surface of the earth gives off its energy as 41% radiation and the rest as conduction and evaporation. 41% is about how much radiation red hot metals give off, not what a cold basement gives off at 15°C. A fraudulent Stefan-Boltzmann constant rationalizes the over-emission of radiation.

Throughout physics, simple equations are being used to represent complexities without accounting for numerous factors. It works good for engineering, but it's not science. Engineers can use a broken ruler, as long as they all use the same one for the same purpose. Scientists cannot.

Normal temperature matter gives off almost no radiation. Yet NASA claims it gives off 41% as much radiation as strikes the earth from the sun.

This is one of the several reasons why carbon dioxide cannot create global warming. But even with the 41%, the numbers cannot be salvaged for the carbon dioxide fraud, as I show below.

The earth's surface is 70% oceans. Their maximum surface temperature is 80°F, with the average much less. Such cold temperatures do not give off significant radiation by any analysis. Propagandists want people to think of asphalt in summer heat. It's a fraud.

What the number means

Carbon dioxide cannot absorb radiation which comes from the sun, because it is too high in frequency. Objects as hot as the sun cannot give off low frequency radiation in the infrared range, which carbon dioxide absorbs.

This means carbon dioxide can only absorb radiation which comes from the earth or the atmosphere.

So radiation from the sun strikes the surface of the earth and is converted into heat. The heat then enters the atmosphere through conduction, convection, evaporation and infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide absorbs some of the infrared radiation, but not all of it, only narrow bands of frequencies which make up about 8% of the infrared frequencies at the lower atmosphere, and less in the upper atmosphere.

Therefore, if there is little radiation being emitted by the surface of the earth, there is little energy being added to the atmosphere by carbon dioxide through that avenue. But if 41% of the sun's energy leaves the earth's surface as infrared radiation, that's a lot of energy to be influenced by carbon dioxide.

Where the number 41% comes from

Climatologists evaluate movement of energy around the earth on flow charts which they call an "energy budget". NASA has such a flow chart showing the 41% number, which is at the bottom of this page. Presumably the IPCC uses the same number, but it's impossible to extract real information from the IPCC reports, so I'm using the NASA number.

The NASA flow chart shows 51% of the sun's energy striking the earth, while 15% is radiated from the earth into the atmosphere, and 6% is radiated from the earth directly into space. Adding the 15% and 6% and dividing by the 51% yields 41% as the proportion of the energy leaving the earth's surface as radiation.

Studies from decades past (before global warming became a significant issue) showed that 8% of the radiation which leaves the surface of the earth is of suitable wavelengths to be absorbed by carbon dioxide.

The shamelessness of the fraud

Claiming that a large amount of infrared radiation leaves the surface of the earth is so obviously false that it cannot be anything but deliberate fraud. There are too many sources of evidence to get such a misrepresentation through error without fraud.

A very important fact to realize is that the infrared radiation given off by any matter is determined by its temperature and nothing else. This means that a normal temperature object (80°F or 27°C) emits the same radiation in a dark room as in blazing sun, when the temperature is the same. So the radiation given off by the earth is determined by its temperature only. Objects vary slightly in their emissivity or absorptivity, but it's about 90% for most objects and about 50% for metals.

The average temperature of the earth is considered to be around 15°C (59°F), which is somewhat less than inside houses. Therefore, the fact that normal temperature matter does not give off significant radiation can be determined in any dark, typical room. If there were such a large amount of radiation, objects would have different temperatures due to different amounts of radiation being absorbed, just as outdoors due to the sun's energy.

Night vision equipment shows the same thing. It is designed to pick up infrared radiation. It will be swamped by moonlight or a flashlight a hundred feet away. It shows that there is very little energy being emitted by normal temperature matter.

For carbon dioxide propagandists to claim that normal temperature matter emits 41% as much energy in the form of infrared radiation as the average energy of sunshine falling on the earth's surface is a shameless fraud.

Each analyst uses a different number, and it varies wildly. I've seen 115%. This means 115% as much infrared radiation leaves the surface of the earth as in the sun's energy striking the earth. Some of it supposedly comes from secondary radiation emitted by the atmosphere. If it were a real number, it would be easy to determine, and everyone would use the same number. But it seems that lies can never be stabilized quite like objective reality.

Electronics Shows the Same Thing

Another line of evidence that the 41% figure is fraud is electronics. I do a lot of electronic work, where there is often heat that needs to be dissipated for large transistors. Large transistors are attached to aluminum for that purpose. Without convection, the aluminum gets very hot. Put a fan on it, and it cools rapidly. It cools about 1-5% as well without air circulation, which allows radiation only. If 41% of the heat were escaping through radiation at 80°F, cooling fans would not be needed. It would be more practical to increase the temperature and surface area of the aluminum slightly.

The surface of the earth is cooled like a fan blowing air over a rough surface. It is just as absurd to claim 41% of the heat escapes the earth through radiation as it is with electronics.

Blowing on Hot Soup Shows the Same Thing

If the 59°F average temperature of the earth were giving off 41% of its heat through radiation, then the 150°F temperature of hot soup would be giving off more, like 60-80%. Blowing on it would remove a fraction of the remaining 20-40%, which would be a 10-20% increase in cooling rate. You wouldn't notice a 10-20% speed-up of soup cooling. You notice the effect of blowing because radiation is negligible, and conduction is slow, until adding convection by blowing.

In other words, the frauds are off by so much that you can tell by blowing on hot soup that they are off. And this standard occurs on point after point after point with the global warming fraud.

The Stefan-Boltzmann Constant

There is a constant for determining the amount of radiation given off by surfaces at any particular temperature. It's called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. It is total fraud, as I show on the web page titled The Stefan-Boltzmann Constant.

It indicates that the amount of radiation given off by matter at the global average temperature of 15°C is 390 watts per square meter, which is 39% as much as the sun's energy at maximum. It isn't happening. A dark, cold basement is not giving off 39% as much energy as the maximum sunshine striking the earth's surface.

Infrared Detectors

Police sometimes use infrared cameras in helicopters at night to determine who is growing marijuana in their home. Growing indoors requires a large amount of light, which leaves a telltale signature of infrared energy being emitted by the structure.

If normal temperature matter were giving off 39% as much radiation as sunlight, it would swamp infrared cameras making them useless. For example, if you turn on a flashlight outdoors during the day, you can't tell whether it is on by looking at it, because surrounding sunlight totally overwhelms such a small amount of light.

The same thing would be true for all outdoor infrared detectors—they would be swamped by surrounding infrared radiation, it the surroundings were giving off such a massive amount of radiation as claimed.
Even extreme numbers will not salvage the fraud

The total atmosphere is said to heat the earth by 33°C.

Propagandists say 41% of the heat leaving the surface of the earth is radiation. It's actually closer to 1%, but just look how ridiculous the result is even when using the 41%.

Only 8% of the radiation is of a frequency which can be absorbed by CO2.

So 33°C X 41% X 8% = 1.08°C — The total heat that CO2 supposedly produces.

Then humans only put 3% of the CO2 into the air. Frauds say it accumulated to 30%; but even with the 30% figure, we must multiply the 1.08°C time 30%, which equals 0.32°C.

If then, the fake mechanism high in the atmosphere only concerns the shoulders on the absorption peaks, the fraction gets smaller. 5% is about what they are talking about. But even if it is 10%, the increase in global temperature caused by humans putting carbon dioxide into the air is an absolute maximum of 0.032°C.

These numbers are so undeniable, that the frauds produced another rationalization. They said water vapor multiplies the effect. They call it forcing. They say CO2 heats a little bit, and this heat causes more water to evaporate from the oceans, and the water vapor heats the globe 3 to 10 times more.

I explain the fraud of multiplying through water vapor on the web page titled The Water Vapor Fraud. But notice that before the multiplication, the absolute maximum number is 0.032°C. Multiplying by 10 would only be 0.32°C. They claim it is already 0.6°C and is going to increase some more. These numbers cannot be increased.

The upper, maximum limit for human induced temperature change based on the claims of the frauds is 0.32°C.

For an exact estimate of numbers, see 220 Trillionth of a Degree Centigrade.

Why the 41% Fiigure is not Relevant

Here's a simple reason why the supposed 41% is irrelevant. It only applies to the bottom red line on this image. All informed persons know that the bottom line has nothing to do with global warming, only the top line does.

Radiation from the earth can interact with the atmosphere and add heat to it only for about 10 meters with carbon dioxide. Doubling the CO2 reduces the distance to 5 meters, which is not relevant. Increasing the radiation increases the distance, which is not relevant. So the 41% is not relevant.

At the top of the troposphere, increasing greenhouse gasses can reduce the radiation which escapes into the stratosphere, but only in miniscule quantities. The 41% has no relationship to this effect, because radiation leaving the earth is absorbed near the surface and does not reach the upper levels. more on these red lines


The NASA Energy Budget

NASA Web Site